In a large bowl, whisk together 2 cups of flour, the yeast and salt. Whisk together the olive oil and water. Add the olive oil/water to the flour and stir with a wooden spoon until the mixture begins to come together.
Sprinkle 1/4 cup flour onto a work surface and begin to knead the dough. If necessary, add more flour 1/4 cup at a time until a soft, smooth dough is achieved and it will hold a fingertip impression when poked. You may not need to use all the flour to achieve the desired consistency. Do not add too much flour, as this will effect the final dough.
Place the dough in an oiled bowl, turning to lightly coat on all sides. Cover tightly with plastic wrap and set in a warm place to rise until doubled in size, about 1 - 1 1/2 hours.
While the dough is rising, preheat oven to 475°F with a baking stone in the center of the oven for at least 1 hour before baking.
In a large skillet set over medium heat, heat the olive oil.
Add the onions to the pan, stirring to coat. Continue stirring the onions every 5 minutes or so, being careful not to burn the onions.
Once the onions begin to turn a light brown, reduce the heat to low and continue to cook and stir the onions every few minutes.
Once the onions have softened and become a deep golden brown, add balsamic vinegar. Continue cooking until the vinegar has been absorbed and the onions have reached your desired color. Remove from heat and set aside.
On a lightly floured surface, press and stretch the pizza dough into a 12 to 14-inch circle then move it to a corneal dusted pizza peel.
Brush the pizza dough evenly with a bit of olive oil. Top with caramelized onions. Arrange the pear slices over the onions and scatter crumbled goat cheese over the top. Sprinkle with a little salt and freshly ground black pepper.
Transfer the pizza to a hot baking stone. Bake the pizza 15-20 minutes until golden browned.